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Besoek die aktiewe LitNet-platform by www.litnet.co.za

This is the LitNet archive (2006–2012)
Visit the active LitNet platform at www.litnet.co.za


 
Taal | Language > isiXhosa > Amanqaku

UKWAZISWA KWESICHAZI-MAGAMA SESIXHOSA NGOMHLA WAMA-22 KWEYO-MSINTSI 2006 - kunyaka wokuvuyisana neelwimi zelizwekazi iAfrika - unyaka wama-2006!


Mhlobo Jadezweni - 2006-09-21

Sonke simele kuthi, “Huntshu!” kubasebenzi nabaxhasi beZiko leSizwe Lochazo-Magama elikwiYunivesithi yaseFort Hare Edikeni ngempumelelo yokuba ngalo mhla wama-22 kweyoMsintsi kunyaka wama-2006 IsiChazi-Mgama sesiXhosa sibe siyanikezelwa esizweni. Lo msebenzi (IsiChazi-Magama) ubobunye bobungqina bokuba ilizwe loMzantsi Afrika lihamba phambili kumsebenzi wolwimi kuwo onke amazwe elizwekazi iAfrika. Ngokweengxelo ezingabhalwanga, kwiindibano ngeendibano ezidibanise onke amazwe ase-Afrika (SADC workshop, Pretoria 2001; UNESCO-ACALAN Workshop, Bamako, Mali 2006) uMzantsi Afrika unika ingxelo ehamba phambili ngendima esele ihanjiwe ekuxhaseni nasekukhuliseni iilwimi zemveli. Obu bubungqina bokuba urhulumente ngomgaqo-siseko (1996:4, Imihlathi 6.1 nowe-6.2) wamisela isikhokelo esenziwayo nesilandelwayo. Ngenkxaso ka-PanSALB (Pan South African Language Board) esi Sichazi-magama siyimbali siyanikezelwa ngalo mhla. Ngokuqinisekileyo iziqhamo zalo mgaqo-siseko wabantu bonke ngamaduna namathokazi. Lelinye lamaduna ke eli.
 
Unyaka wama-2006 owalathelwe ukuvuyisana neeLwimi zase-Afrika (Year of African Languages) lithuba elihle lokuba simana ukuthi xha sijonge esele sikwenzile. Xa sibuya umva sijonga kwiminyaka ye-1872 ngexesha lamaphephandaba nezigidimi zesiXhosa asithandabuzi ukuba olu lwimi lwesiXhosa alunakuze luye ndawo koko luza kukhula ngakumbi nangakumbi. Xa olu lwimi nezinye ezininzi ezazikwimeko efanayo zasinda kwezo nkqwithela namaqhwa angaphambili ayikho ngoku into engabe izitshabalalise.
 
Imiqulu emithathu yeSichazi-mazwi esiXhosa ekhutshwe leli ziko i-XNLU ibubungqina bokuzimisela kukaXhosa ekugcineni nasekukhuliseni isiXhosa. Ngxatsho ke mawethu ngalo msebenzi! Siyazi noko sisesenyeleni kwidabi lokuvuselela isiXhosa. Le miqulu yomithathu mayibe sisiseko semisebenzi yolu hlobo eza kuzalwa. Yiminyaka siqikaqikana nemisebenzi efana nalowa wabhalwa nguKropf. Ubunzulu bemisebenzi efana nalo weli “nene” buthandabuzeka kakhulu. Abaphandi abafana noMoropa K (2000 ) basikhulule kuba thina besithetha nje sibe sirhoxe kuba singaqamele nganto. Mayibe sisifundo imisebenzi efana nolu phando (Moropa 2000) lusihloko salo sithi, Mistranslation of culture-specific terms in Kropf’s Kafir-English dictionary. Abahlalutyi bale miqulu mithathu baza kusinika ubuncwane balo msebenzi. Asithandabuzi ukuba uphando olunjalo luya kusinika izixhobo zokuwunambitha ngakumbi umsebenzi wesizwe sethu.
 
Uncwadi lwesiXhosa lusinika isigama namagama esinokuthi siwasebenzise ekusunguleni ezinye izichazi-magama. Isigidimi samaXhosa, Meyi 16, 1884 (ngokucatshulwa nguZotwana 1993) sinobu buncwane:
Kwabakolobhayo
Shiyani abantu abathembekayo ezindaweni zenu xa nisimka eBhayi. ‘Msani ukuhlala
iinyangana ngambini nibuye nimke besaqala ukuniqhela abeLungu. Le nto abeLungu baseBhayi bayakhala ngayo. Bathi abanye kulunge ngaphezulu ukuqesha amalawo, wona angamana emka njengamaXhosa. Umntu wangaphandle ngoku uza kuqeshwa ethandatyuzwa ngamanene athanda ukugcina izicaka, ngale nto yokufika ngoMarch, asebenze uApril noJune emke ngoJuly, abuye ngoAugust emke ngoOctober … Azifuneki ezi zijungqana nala manqakwana ezikolobho: athiyiwe nangabeLungu. Thina bantu baziwa kakhulu ngabeLungu apha eBhayi siva into embi. UmLungu uthi ngokusazi asicele ukuba simfunele isteady boy, uze uthi wakuthumela iboy yaseKafile…Shiyani abantu abathembekayo ezindaweni zenu xa nisimka eBhayi.
 
Injojeli yombhali uDDT Jabavu (1958:12) ubhala enjenje
…sendinazo neemfele zamakhwenkwe asixhenxe endawalalisa ngezisu ndiwakatsa ngomphindwa wemvubu xa ebeqhuba isitrayika. Abazali bandibulele, besithi sikholwa kukuba akatswe kunokugoduswa, kuba madala asisenakho thina ekhaya ukuwakatsa, alungele izikhwenkxe zeetitshala. Ngxatsho.
 
Zozibini ezi zichatshulwa zisinika imizekelo ecacileyo yamagama nesigama esele sinqabile kule mihla (2006) ekungenzeka silahleke ukuba asigcinwanga. Ngesichazi-magama sesiXhosa la magama angagcinwa. Ingcaciso enganikwa ngegama ngalinye ingongeza kulwazi lwabafundi nabalesi abaphoswayo ziziganeko zakudala azifana “nesitrayika” esinaleni.
 
Olunye uhlobo lwesichazi-mazwi esinokuthi sitsale ngaso umdla wabaleseshi besiXhosa sesesigama esitenxileyo (slang) kulwimi lwesiXhosa. Amagama afana nala: “Isusu sam sikuhlungu”, “Ihlanza sam sokunene”, “ilantuka” namanye amaninzi angakha isitha esikhulu esingaphemba ingxoxo emnandi kakhulu ngolwimi.
 
Isalithiso sababhali besiXhosa (Biographical dictionary) lolunye uhlobo lwesichazi-mazwi esinganika isidima ulwimi lwesiXhosa. Bonke ababhali bangafumaneka kuloo mqulu ongaguqulelwa nakwezinye iilwimi xa kukho imfuneko. Lo mqulu unganceda nakule nto yokulahleka kwababhali, nto leyo ebangelwa kukuba kungazange kubhalwe nto ngabo.
 
Kwezemfundo urhulumente welizwe loMzantsi Afrika ulandela ikhondo lezizwe zonke zehlabathi. Imfundo ngoku iza kuba ngolwimi lwasekhaya kumntwana wonke weli lizwe. Malunga nalo mba uMongameli we-ACALAN uAdama Samassekou (2002:6) uthi:
It is now time that Africa stopped being the only continent where a school child can have access to knowledge and science only through a language other than the one spoken in his family!
La mazwi ngumngeni kubo bonke abantu abasebenza ngeelwimi zase-Afrika. Kubantu abakwikhondo lokubhala izichazi-mazwi oku kuthetha ukuba izifundo ebezifundwa ngezinye iilwimi zifuna isigama seelwimi zesiNtu. Ngaphambili besinawo amagama kwizifundo ezifana nesayensi. Umongomoya (oxygen) lelinye lamagama ekudala ekho. Ngenxa yokuba uninzi lwezinto zazikho kakade isiXhosa naso simele ukuba sibe naso isigama sezinto zendalo. Umbuzo ngowokuba zonke ezi zinto babezibiza ngawaphi amagama ookhokho xa namhlanje thina sisithi azinamagama emveli zibe zazikho uLeni (Mr Leanard Bode, usomashishini omhlophe owayenevenkile kuXawuka eDutywa) engekazalwa. Kwabasathetha loo nto uDlodlo T (1999) uthi, “Hulu!” Emasikwenze masiqokelele isigama sisibhale kwizichazi-mazwi zezifundo ngezifundo ukuze ulawulo ngokwemfuno yabaninzi (idemokhrasi) lube yimpumelelo kuMzantsi Afrika. Le yenye yeendlela zokuzikhulula ngolwimi (Linguistic liberation). Ulwimi lwesi-Afrikansi lulwimi olutsha kakhulu kodwa sele lwenze imitsi emikhulu ekuzikhululeni. Mhlawumbi singakopa nto nakulo.
 
Ukuveliswa kwekhompuyutha ligalelo elikhulu kakhulu kwihlabathi. Ngesi sixhobo ezi zichazi-magama singazithwalisa lo mtshini sifumane onokusinqakula nokuba usendleleni (online dictionary). Olu hlobo lwesichazi-magama luza kwenza ukukhula kolwimi kukhawuleze ngokuphindaphindiweyo. Ukufikelelwa kolu lwimi lihlabathi liphela kuza kuba nguqhwanya. Uluvo lokuba isiXhosa asinakuhambelana nala maxesha lufe amanqe. Le ndlela yesi sichazi-mazwi iza kulubhangisa olo luvo.
 
Ngenxa yokuba semva kuphuhliso lwezemfundo kwicandelo lezifundo zokwenza izichazi-magama inkxaso enkulu iyafuneka. Kufuneka kuqeqeshwe abantu abaza kwenza lo msebenzi. Njengoko sele ekho amaziko emfundo ephakamileyo eMzantsi Afrika urhulumente unoxanduva lokuthumela abafundi kula maziko emfundo ephakamileyo. Ilizwe laseGabon sele liqalile kweli phulo. Kunyaka wama-2006 abafundi aba-5 boyise isidanga sobugqirha kwi-lekisikhografi kwiyunivesithi yaseStellenbosch. Igalelo laba bafundi kwilizwe labo likhulu kakhulu njengoko ngolwimi beza kuncedisa ekwakheni isizwe (Nation building). Njengelizwe elisakhulayo uMzantsi Afrika nawo unoxanduva lokuxhasa iphulo lesichazi-magama esiXhosa. Imizi yezoshishino ngegalelo layo kweli candela lesiXhosa ingazuza isivuno esihle. Xa, umzekelo, isigama soshishino sinokufumaneka ngesiXhosa akuthandabuzeki ukuba ixabiso lesiXhosa ngokweerandi lingantinga.
 
Kuthi sonke masazi ukuba urhulumente welizwe lethu ukuxhasa ngokungahexiyo ukubhalwa kwezichazi-magama zesiXhosa. Inyathelo ngalinye elithatyathwa yi-XNLU linenkxaso karhulumente nozwelonke. Kwimibutho yeelwimi zesiNtu neyoluntu ingakumbi kulo nyaka sicela inkxaso engahexiyo kwiphulo lokusetyenziswa kwesiXhosa nezinye iilwimi zethu kuyo yonke imiba yobomi babantu bethu. Ngaloo ndlela siya kuba sibakhulule nenenene abantu bethu. Ngeminye imisebenzi le mibutho esele iyenzili sithi, “Ngxatsho ke!”
 
Okokugqibela sibamba ngazibini kumavolontiya asebenza lo msebenzi ngegalelo lawo ekwakheni ngokutsha isizwe ngoncwadi lwesiXhosa oluzezi dikshinari. Kuni nonke siyazi ukuba “asinithenganga ngemibengo kananjalo kungenganzuzo zimakhwezi-khwezi”, ngabula Mzima, uMqhayi ,imbongi yesizwe jikelele. Sibamba ngazibini.
 
 
Imithombo yezimvo
 
ACALAN - African Academy of languages (Special Bulletin), January 2002.
 
Dlodlo, T. S. (1999)           Science Nomenclature in Africa: Physics in Nguni
                                             Journal of Research in Science Teaching Vol. 36 No 3 pp321-331
 
Jabavu, D.D.T. (1958)       Izidungulwana
                                             Cape Town: Maskew Miller
 
Moropa, K. (2000)             Mistranslation of Culture-specific terms in Kropf’s Kafir-English Dictionary
                                             South African Journal of African languages Vol 20, No 1 pp70-79
 
Umgaqo-siseko weRiphabhlikhi yomZantsi Afrika , 1996.
 
Zotwana, S.Z. (1993)         Literature Between Two Worlds – The first fifty years of the Xhosa novel and poetry.
                                             Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Cape Town, Cape Town