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Visit the active LitNet platform at www.litnet.co.za


 
Taal | Language > isiZulu

Ukukhala akusizi; zama okuningi: ukuthuthukiswa kwemibhalo ezilimini zaboMdabu kuleli*


Dumisani Sibiya - 2006-09-07

Iqoqa
Kuningi osekuzanyiwe ukwenza ngcono nokubeka ezingeni imibhalo yezilimi zaboMdabu base-Afrika kodwa kuze kube manje imibhalo kulezi zilimi isalokhu ibhekene nengwadla. Phakathi kwezinye izindlela esezizanyiwe singabala ukuklomelisa izincwadi, ukushicilela izincwadi yinkampani ethile ngenhloso yokwandisa imibhalo (lolu chungechunge oluye lwaziwe ngegama elithile kuthiwa yisilisi) kanye nokuhluzwa kwemibhalo. Nakuba lokhu kusengasetshenziswa kangconywana ngokuthi kufakwe omunye umfutho, leli phepha liyagcizelela ukuthi kufanele kusetshenziswe izindlela eziningi ukwakha nokuthuthukisa imibhalo yobuciko esezingeni lomhlaba kulezi zilimi. Kule ngxoxo ekuleli phepha kubekwa nemibono ngezinye izindlela ezingasiza ukwenza ngcono isimo semibhalo yobuciko kulezi zilimi zelengabadi.

Isingeniso
Kubonakala sengathi alikakhuli inani labafunda izincwadi zesiZulu; kodwa ithemba likhulu lokuthi lesi sibalo sizokwanda sibe ngesijabulisayo ngenxa yezinguquko zakamuva kwezemfundo (Bang, 1951: 6)1.

Ukufundwa kwezincwadi ezibhalwe ngezilimi zaboMdabu bakuleli zikhombisa ukuciciza noma sithi nje zithuthuka kancane, njengoba abahluzi abehlukene belokhu bekhale ngakho lokhu iminyaka ngeminyaka (Bang, 1951; Malan, 1980; Attwell, 1984; Maake, 2000). Kodwa-ke njengoba uSolwazi uMaake esho, ukungathuthuki kwemibhalo yethu akuyona into esingagcizelelwa kakhulu ukuba singaze silale sidle yona; kunalokho kufanele ngabe le mibhalo ishayelwa ihlombe ngokuthi ikwazile ukuphila ngaphansi kwesimo sengcindezelo kwezombusazwe nakwezomnotho, nobekungelula ukuthi ikhule le mibhalo.

Lapha asizukukhuluma ngesimo nezinkinga imibhalo yezilimi zoMdabu wase-Afrika ehlangabezane nazo (baningi asebekhulumile ngaphambilini); kodwa sizogxila ezindleleni esezisetshenzisiwe ukwenza ngcono isimo sale mibhalo. Inhloso akukhona ukukhombisa ukuthi lawo maqhinga awabanga namsebenzi walutho kodwa wukuthi labo abakhathalele ukuthuthukiswa nokuhlonishwa kwemibhalo yalezi zilimi bakwazi ukufunda ebuhleni nasebubini balelo nalelo qhinga. La maqhinga asesetshenziswe kakhulu kodwa awukho umehluko omkhulu awenzayo. Lapha-ke ngihlaba ikhwelo lokuthi la masu awandiswe futhi asetshenziswe kanye kanye ukuze kube nomehluko. Ingxenye yokuqala sizohlaziya lawo asesetshenzisiwe ngaphambilini, kubonakale ukuthi yini okungahlonyulwa ukuwenza abe negalelo elibonakalayo.

Osekuzanyiwe kwakhathalwa
Selokhu kwaqalwa ukushicilela imibhalo yobuciko ngezilimi zaboMdabu eziMishini ngekhulu-nyaka le-19 kuze kufike isikhathi sokuqhibuka kwezinkampani ngekhulu-nyaka lama-20,2 inkinga enkulu ekuthuthukeni nasekugqameni kwemibhalo kulezi zilimi kwaba wukusweleka kwabafundi. Ngokocwaningo kuyahlaluka ukuthi lezi zinkinga zibe khona ezilimini zabomdabu kulo lonke izwekazi lase-Afrika.

UMaake uyasikhumbuza ukuthi izinto ebeziphazamisa ukuthuthuka kwemibhalo kulezi zilimi, zibandakanya imithetho eshaywa yinkolo, abashicileli ababeyizincelebane zikaHulumeni wobandlululo, umthetho ohlungayo nowawushaywe ngokomgomo wokushicilela, inkohlakalo yabahlunga izincwadi eziya ezikoleni, kanye nesiGungu soLimi. Ukungeneliseki ngokufundwa kwalezi zilimi kubangelwa ubuphofu kubantu, ukungafundi ngokwanele, isiko lokufunda elingekho, kanye nesenzo sohlelo lwemfundo yeBantu eyenza kubonakale ukufunda kuyinto yezingane zesikole. Akhona amasu asezanyiwe ukwenza isimo sale mibhalo ibe ngcono.

 

  • Imiklomelo
    Imiklomelo yehlukene kabili: kukhona eklomelisa imizamo engakaze ishicilelwe kanye naleyo eklomelisa imibhalo esuke isishicilelwe. Uhlobo lokuqala lwemiklomelo luhlose ukuthuthukisa imibhalo ngokwandisa inani lezincwadi, kanti lolu lwesibili lona luhlose ukukhangisa nje lezo ncwadi ezisuke vele sezishicilelwe. Ngamanye amazwi lolu hlobo lwesibili lwazisa abanikazi bolimi ukuthi kukhona incwadi ethile nethile esezingeni eliphezulu olimini lwabo.

    Nakuba izinhloso zizinhle kakhulu zalezi zinhlobo zemiklomelo, kukhona okungahambi kahle ngazo. Ukubeka izibonelo nje ezimbili, sizothatha iSanlam Prize for Youth Literature neM-net Book Prize zihlanganisa izilimi zesiNguni nesiSuthu esikhundleni sokuthi ulimi ngalunye kweziyisikhombisa luzimele lulodwa. Yize noma kubonakala sengathi ukuhlobana kwalezi zilimi yikhona okwenza ukuthi zididiyelwe ndawonye emaqenjini, ukushiywa kwezilimi ezikhulunywa yidlanzana njengesiTsonga nesiVenda kukhomba ukuthi yingoba kungekho mali etheni eyenziwayo ngokudayisa izincwadi kulezi zilimi ezimbili. Kodwa-ke kuyamangalisa ukuthi isiBhunu nesiNgisi zona azihlanganiswa kodwa zihlobene. Lokhu kungukubandlulula futhi akwamukeleki ezweni eseliziqhayisa ngomthetho-sisekelo ogcizelela izilimi ezilinganayo eziyishumi nanye. Kuyacaca ukuthi lokhu kungahloniphi ngendlela efanayo izilimi yindlela yokwenza imali kunokuthuthukisa izilimi zaboMdabu. Ukuba njengokusho kukaMaake,3 imiklomelo "yenza ngcono izinga lemibhalo yobuciko ngokuklomelisa imisebenzi yababhali asebemnkantsha ubomvu kanye namavukana… ibuye ivule abantu amehlo babone imisebenzi emihle ezilimini zabo bese bethenga", lapha kubonakala sengathi imiklomelo ikhombisa ukungalingani kwezilimi okwakukhona ngesikhathi sobandlululo. Ngaphandle kwalokhu osekuxoxwe ngakho ngenhla, imiklomelo ebhekene nezilimi zaboMdabu bakuleli imbalwa kakhulu ukwenza umehluko ekuthuthukiseni lezi zilimi. Ngokuqhathanisa kukaSolwazi uMaake (2000: 149), isiBhunu sinemiklomelo eyishumi nane (ukusuka ngo-1914), isiNgisi sona sineyisithupha - uma kungabalwa eminye eyisithupha esasiyihlanganyela nesiBhunu. Izilimi zaboMdabu bakuleli zona zinembalwa kakhulu.4 Kubonakala kukuncane kakhulu okwenziwa abashicileli uma imibhalo isishicilelwe, okufana nokukhangisa. Abakwenzayo nje wukulinda imiNyango yezeMfundo ukuthi ibize izincwadi ukuze zihlungelwe ukufundwa ezikoleni. Kungalesi sizathu abashicileli abaningi bebengashicileli ncwadi ezilimini zethu kule minyaka emine kuya kwemihlanu edlule. Ngesinye isikhathi kuba nezincwadi ezilinda iminyaka eyevile kwemihlanu ngaphambi kokuthi zishicilelwe. Isizathu salokhu wukunciphisa kukahulumeni imali yokuxhasa ukuthengwa kwezincwadi nokwenza abashicileli bathwale kanzima uma kufanele bakhiqize izincwadi ezintsha. Yize kukubi ohlangothini lwabashicileli, kusize ukuvusa abamakethayo ebuthongweni babo, bacabange ezinye izindlela zokukhangisa nokudayisa kanjalo nokuncintisana nezinye izinkampani.

    Ngokomlando wemibhalo yobuciko ezilimini zaboMdabu bakuleli zwe (Maake, 2000: 129), imiklomelo ivele kakhulu ngeminyaka yawo-1980, ngakho-ke ngeke silindele umehluko ongako okumele iwenze ekuthuthukiseni imibhalo. Kodwa-ke futhi singeke saqinisa ukuthi ukungabi bikho kwemiklomelo eyanele yikhona okwenza imibhalo ingathuthuki, kanti futhi noma ingaba khona ngokushesha futhi ibe miningi ngeke ixazululeke inkinga yemibhalo yobuciko kulezi zilimi. Umlando wokuthuthuka nokudlodlobala kwemibhalo yesiBhunu ikhomba ukuthi imibhalo ayithuthukiswa yimiklomelo kuphela.5 Ngokusho kukaPhaswane Mpe "imibhalo yakhiwa, ilolongwe okuningi okubamba iqhaza: abashicileli nabafundi bezincwadi, izintatheli nabezokuxhumana, ababhali, abahlaziyi bemibhalo…"6 Ukwehlukana kweqhaza elibanjwa abantu abehlukene ekwakhiweni kwemibhalo kuthi akufane ncimishi namasu ahlukene okufanele asetshenziswe ekuthuthukiseni nasekukhangiseni imibhalo ezilimini zaboMdabu kuleli.

    Okuyikhona kwehlisa isithunzi neqhaza lemiklomelo eqondene ngqo nezilimi ezithile, ngokukhombisa kocwaningo lukaNhlanhla Maake, yinkohlakalo. Ukumbulwa kwezinqe kwalabo ababeneqhaza kuleyo nkohlakalo ngeminyaka yawo-1990 kwenza ukuthi le miklomelo yehle ngenani nangokuhlonipheka kwayo. Masikuphawule ukuthi lokhu kwenzeka ngesikhathi esifanayo nokuvalwa kwezinkampani ezazibolile yinkohlakalo.7 (Ngizosho ngingahlonizi ukuthi namanje isekhona inkohlakalo; inoveli yami ethi Kungasa Ngifile ayiwutholanga umklomelo emcimbini woSiba wokunikezelwa kwemiklomelo wangonyaka ka-2003 ngoba kwakunenkolelo yokuthi angilona ilungu lenhlangano ngokugcwele."

    Ngenxa yamathizethize ahambisana nokunikezwa kwemiklomelo, ibonakala ikhathele futhi ingakwazi ukudlala iqhaza elifanele nelilindelekile. Ngokusho kukaMpe noMaake, ukungathuthuki kwemibhalo ezilimini zabamnyama ngeke kwaba yicala elingathwalwa abashicileli nokungabibikho kwemiklomelo eyanele kuphela. Ngaleyo ndlela sikhona isidingo sokuthi ke sibheke amanye amasu asetshenzisiwe. Njengoba omunye umlobi ongathandanga ukuveza igama lakhe asho ngo-1951:

    Ekugcineni kwakho konke ukuthuthuka kolimi kanye nemibhalo yalo incike kakhulu kumbhali ozinikele kanye nasolimini oluphilayo olukhulunywayo, oluthuthukayo, noluwumthombo lapho umbhali onohlonze ephuza khona.8
  • Uchungechunge lwezincwadi
    Kukhona izinkampani ezifana noWitwatersrand University Press, Macmillan Southern Africa, neHeinemann Southern Africa ezakhe uchungechunge lokushicilelwa kwezincwadi noma amasirisi aziwa ngegama elithile. Uchungechunge oludala kakhulu yilolo lwe-UWP olwaziwa ngeleBantu Treasury series nolwasungulwa uClement Doke ngabo-1930. Izincwadi ezashicilelwa ngaphansi kwalolu chungechunge kuze kube manje zisathathwa njengezisezingeni eliphezulu ezilimini ezishicilelwe ngazo. Lapha singabala iqoqo lezinkondlo (BW Vilakazi: Inkondlo kaZulu, 1935) lokuqala kanye nomdlalo (NNT Ndebele: UGubudele Namazimuzimu, 1937) wokuqala esiZulwini ziyingxenye yalolu chungechunge lwezincwadi. Usuke engaqambi manga uMaake (2000: 138) uma ethi "laba babhali basezingeni eliphezulu." Ukufakezela lokhu akushoyo, uVilakazi kuze kube nanamuhla usathathwa njengembongi esezingeni eliphezulu esiZulwini. U-SEK Mqhayi usadla ubhedu namanje esiXhoseni. Bheka ngoba inoveli yakhe yomlando ethi Ityala lamawele yagcina isiwumdlalo kamabonakude futhi isivezwe kaningi impela. Ngenxa yesizathu engingakasazi namanje lolu chungechunge lwezincwadi zeBantu Treasury alusashicilelwa.

    Inkampani yakwaMacmillan yona ibingashicileli nhlobo ngezilimi zase-Afrika kuze kube sekupheleni kweminyaka yawo-1980, ngesikhathi beqamba uchungechunge lwezincwadi olwaziwa ngelikaVulandlela. Emibhalweni yesiZulu engaphansi kwalolu chungechunge akukho ncwadi esezingeni elibabazekayo. Ukwenza nje isibonelo, izindaba ezimfishane zika-AB Shange, KJN Sithole (1990) noCondy Nxaba, azihlukile emibhalweni yabalobi abafana noDBZ Ntuli. UVulindlela kubonakala sengathi igalelo lakhe wukwandisa inani lezindaba zesiZulu ikakhulu, kunokuthuthukisa izinga lokuchwephesha ekubhaleni. Njengoba abashicileli abaningi bengasakhiqizi imibhalo yobuciko muva nje, eminyakeni emithathu nangaphezulu edlule ayikashicileli lutho olubonakalayo. Kuze kwathi kuwo lo nyaka bayikhane belungiselela ukushicilela ngoba uMnyango weMfundo usuhlabe ikhwelo lokuthi ufuna izincwadi ezintsha.

    Uchungechunge lwakwaHeinemann olwaziwa ngeleMamela Afrika Series lwethulwe ngonyaka ka-1998 kanti lushicilele izilimi zaboMdabu iminyaka emithathu ilandelana. Kodwa-ke ukusukela ngo-2001, akubange kusashicilelwa ncwadi kulolu chungechunge. Nebala kwase kusho khona ukuthi lukhulu luyeza luyanyelela. Muva nje (2004) abashicileli ababebhekene ngqo nalolu chungechunge, abakhuluma izilimi zoMdabu (bathathu sebebonke ngokwazi kwami) bashiyile enkampanini yakwaHeinemann, baya kwezinye izindawo. Okumangalisayo wukuthi ezikhundleni zabo akufakwanga muntu.

    Ngiyavumelana nombono kaMaake (2000: 151) uma ethi "zimbalwa kakhulu izincwadi ezisezingeni eliphezulu. Okwenzekayo manje wukuthi izincwadi sezishicilelwa ngoba nakhu sikhombisa ukuhambisana nomthetho olawula izwe, ngokukhuluma ngengculazi, ngokuxoxa kahle ngobunkonkoni, ngaphandle kokujula nokuhlaziya lezi zindikimba." Isibonelo esihle yileso sencwadi ethi Isethembiso Esilichoboka, nekhuluma ngokuhushulwa kwezisu ngaphandle kokwenza abafundi bacabange bajule ngokwenziwa kwakho ukuhushulwa kwezisu kube semthethweni. Njengasezincwadini zesiPedi ezikulolu chungechunge lweMamela Afrika, esiZulwini izinga liyehluka incwadi nencwadi.9 Amanoveli oVM Bhengu (Itshwele Lempangele) noJN Mngadi (Iziboshwa Zothando) aseqophelweni eliphakeme. Incwadi kaBhengu ayinconywa kuphela abahlaziyi abafana noNomvula Maduna kodwa ngisho nabanye abashicileli.10

    Ngokwalolu chungechunge lweMamela kunzima ukusho ukuthi izinga eliphezulu lichazwa ngandlelani. UJoyce Musi owayengumshicileli ngaleso sikhathi wangibhalela umyalezo othi "Izindaba zakho ezimfishane azikho ezingeni lokuthi sizishicilele… ngiyakweseka lokho." Yize noma engakwazi ngisho ukufunda ngisho umusho obhalwe ngesiZulu, wakwazi ukuthi izindaba zami abazukuzishicilela ngoba azinazo "izifundo." 11 Enye inkampani yayikade iyincomile ngaphambilini yathi nokusho zifanele zishicilelwe. Ukugcizelela isifundo esisobala embhalweni bese uvaleka amehlo ungabe usabona nobuchule nekhono lokubhala kukhombisa ukudideka komshicileli ngoba iMamela lena iyizincwadi eziqondiswe kubafundi asebebadala, hhayi izingane.12 Okunye okukhombisa ukungahleleki kahle kwezinto kulolu chungechunge wukuthi inkampani ibheke ukuthi uMnyango weMfundo ufake lezi zincwadi ohleni lwezincwadi ezifundwa ezikoleni ekubeni kodwa inhloso yochungechunge kuwukushicilela izincwadi ezilungele abafundi asebevuthiwe.

    Izindaba ezimfishane zikaNkosinathi Sithole, nezawina umklomelo i-Ernst van Heerden Creative Writing Award,13 wathi omunye wabahlungi bezincwadi zeMamela, azifanelwe ukushicilelwa ngoba azithuthuki zibheke kuvuthondaba. Ngenhlanhla nje ngiyamazi lona owayehluza lo mbhalo. Ulwazi lwakhe lwezindlela zokubhala nentuthuko yakamuva emibhalweni lufishane kakhulu, akaze ashicilele mbhalo ohluzayo noma ocubungula imibhalo kumbe-ke azame ukubhala owakhe umbhalo wobuciko. Akwazi kakhulu wukufundisa labo abangasincelanga ebeleni isiZulu, nokuyinto ayifundayo wagogoda kuyo, hhayi imibhalo yobuciko. Ngaleyo ndlela izindlela ezisetshenziselwa ukukhetha abahluzi balolu chungechunge lweMamela Afrika Series, zidinga ukuhlaziywa ngoba sengathi kukhona okungezi kahle ngazo.

    Ngaphandle kwalokhu okubi esesikubalile ngenhla, ngabe asenzi ubulungiswa uma singabashayeli ihlombe abashicileli balezi zincwadi. Okokuqala, bakwazile ukuvula inkundla yokuthi abalobi bakwazi ukubhala ngezindikimba eziningi ezazingathintwa kudala ezilimini zaboMdabu bakuleli, njengezombusazwe nje. Okwesibili, izincwadi ezikhiqizwe kulolu chungechunge zinhle okungayiwa, ziyabukeka, zikuqhweba uza laphaya. Ukusatshalaliswa kwezincwadi futhi kusezingeni eliphezulu, ngisho e-Exclusive Books uyazithola nokuyinto engenzeki ezincwadini eziningi ezibhalwe ngezilimi zethu. Ngeshwa elikhulu nokho, bambalwa kakhulu ababhali esibabone begqama lapha, abebewumgogodla wochungechunge sebegeze izandla bashaya izishwapha zabo, kanti futhi nezinga ababehlose ukufinyelela kulo lokufica i-African Writers Series yodumo (eyasungulwa yiHeinemann International) ligcine nje sekuyiphupho.

     

  • Ukuhluzwa kwemibhalo
    Sathi sizixoxela nje ngolunye usuku ngokuqala kuka-2001 nomunye wababhali besiZulu ohlonishwa kakhulu nongumshicileli kwenye yezinkampani, ngacela ukuthi angibalele abahlaziyi bemibhalo yesiZulu abahlanu abaziyo. Akazange akhumbule ngisho owokubika ngiqinisile! Naye uqobo kwacaca ukuthi akukho lutho akubhalayo ekuhluzeni nokuyigalelo ekuthuthukiseni imibhalo, yize noma eneziqu zobudokotela kwezemibhalo. Ngabe lokhu kusho ukuthi akaliboni iqhaza elibanjwa wukuhlaziya ekuthuthukiseni imibhalo? Ngaphandle kwemibhalo yama-eseyi ahluza izincwadi, uthuthuka kanjani yena njengombhali? Ngabe ucoshela kwezinye izilimi? Angizange ngimcindezele ukuthi angiphendule le mibuzo; ingxoxo yethu yayingahlangene nalo mbhalo owufundayo. Lo mbhali ungomunye wabaningi abakushaya indiva ukuhluzwa kwemibhalo ekuthuthukeni kwabo njengababhali. Yibo kanye futhi laba abangakaze bazihluphe nje ngokuhluza. Nakuba abanye babalobi abanohlonze abafana noCT Msimang noDBZ Ntuli belwenzile ucwadingo ngemibhalo yesiZulu nolimi nje jikelele, iningi lababhali sengathi alikakuboni ukubaluleka kokwenza lokho. Kuyamangalisa-ke lokho nokho uma usucabanga ukuthi baningi kanjani abalobi besiZulu, iningi labo futhi lifundile. Babukeka bethule nje bengazi nanyaka ngalokhu. Nokho singeyifele amathe imizamo yabantu abafana noGS Zulu noDBZ Ntuli abahluza imibhalo emaphepheni Ilanga neSolezwe.

    Ukuthula nokuvilapha ukuhluza imibhalo yobuciko kubonakala sengathi yisifo esihlasele kuzo zonke izilimi zaboMdabu eNingizimu Afrika. Amanyuvezi awalibambile ngokwanele iqhaza ekuhlaziyweni kwemibhalo (Maake, 2000: 146). Kulabo abambalwa esingeke sibadlele amandla nemizamo yabo yokubeka le mibhalo ezingeni eliphezulu, singabala amaqhawe afana noBW Vilakazi, RRR Dhlomo, CLS Nyembezi, HC Groenewald, CF Swanepoel noDP Kunene. Ezikhathini eziningi, njengoba eyihlaba eseikhonkosini uNhlanhla Maake (200: 146) amanye amanyuvesi akhiqize inqwaba yezifundiswa nothisha esingakaliboni iqhaza labo ekuhluzweni kwemibhalo. Komunye nje uMnyango weziLimi zaboMdabu kwenye yamanyuvesi ayaziwa ngokuthi angawabaMnyama, ikhiqize amaMA neziqu zobudokotela wena owabona izinkwa ebhikawozi. Ngaphansi kwaleso simo esinjalo kuyangabazisa ukuthi izilimi zethu zingahlomula eqhazeni elibanjwa wukuhluzwa kwemibhalo.

    Kulezi zinsuku uma sikhuluma ngokuhluzwa kwezincwadi kumajeneli nasezincwadini ezibhalelwe khona ukuhluza, kunzima kakhulu ukukhumbula amagama angedlula kwamabili abantu ababambe iqhaza. Akukhona ukuthi umuntu yingoba esadla impundu (kwazise nenyama sesayithenga emabhusha, akusahlatshwa nje) njengoba ekhohlwa; iqiniso wukuthi akukho okungako okungakhunjulwa. Iningi lalabo abasezikhungweni zemfundo ephakeme ababhali bahluze imibhalo. Kujwayelekile ukuthi benze imisebenzi benzela abashicileli nezinkampani, ukuze bathasisele kulobu buchwabalalana ababuthola ngenyanga. Ukuba bake bazama ngabe sithi mhlawumbe bakhathele manje. Labo abenza umsebenzi oncomekayo wesizwe bengabheke mali sebeziphumulele kobandayo.14 Ukusebenza kanzima nangokuzinikelwa kwabambalwa abahlaziya imibhalo beyenekele izwe nabangahle bayithenge leyo mibhalo ibonakala imincane kakhulu ngoba iningi lihleli ligoqe izandla.

    Ukukhala akusizi; zama okuningi
    Amazwi ensizwa yakwaBang (1951) esivule ngawo le ngxoxo ehlangene nesikhalo sikaMaake (2000) kuleli khulu nyaka kusikhombisa ngokusobala ukujiya nobulikhuni bale nkinga. Njengoba uPhaswane Mpe esipotshozela ocwaningweni lwakhe lwango-1999 lweHeinemann African Writers Series, kuningi okubamba iqhaza ekwakheni nasekuthuthukiseni imibhalo yobuciko olimini. Singabala nje ababhali nabahluzi, abashicileli nabafundi, abacwaningi nabakhangisi. Ubuchule nobunyoningco obusetshenziswe encwadini abusho ukuthi isizofundwa. Abafundi abahlali behlahle amehlo bebheke incwadi entsha kodwa kufanele kube khona abakhuluma ngayo, bayikhangise, babanxenxe, bababonise ubuhle bencwadi noma ngabe bebungekho. Ukuthengwa nokufundwa kwezincwadi kuncike ezintweni ezenziwayo ngencwadi, njengokukhangisa, hhayi nje incwadi kuphela. Ucwaningo lukaThomas Woll15 lusikhombisa ngokusobala ukuthi ziningi izimpendulo zale ngwadla yombuzo othinta ukufundwa nokuthuthukiswa kwezincwadi. Ngokwabashicileli, amazwibela encwadi, inani layo uma uyithenga, ukubukeka kwayo ngaphandle, nokukhangisa, yikhona okubamba iqhaza elikhulu ekuthengisweni kwezincwadi. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ucwaningo lukhombisa ukuthi indikimba yencwadi (44%) kanye nokwaziwa kombhali (24%) yikhona okubamba iqhaza elikhulu ekuthengweni nasekufundweni kwezincwadi. Kanti babili ekhulwini (2%) abathenga ngoba incwadi ibiza inani elithile noma ibukeka ngendlela ethile ngaphandle (Woll, 1998: 164). Lokhu kuphambana kwemibono yabantu abehlukene kusikhombisa ngokusobala ukuthi ukuthuthukisa nokukhangisa imibhalo kudinga kube okubandakanya nabafundi uqobo ngandlela thile.

    Amasu asetshenziswa ukuthuthukisa nokwazisa ngemibhalo yobuciko ezilimini zaboMdabo, kumele kube amaningi ahlukahlukene njengoba noMpe echaza ukuthi ngabantu nezinto ezahlukene ezibamba iqhaza ekuthuthukeni kwemibhalo yobuciko. Sishilo ngenhla ukuthi amasu asetshenzisiwe awazange abe nalo igalelo elibonakalayo. Lokhu akusho ukuthi sekufanele kulahlwe imbeleko. Kuswelekile ukuthi la maqhinga avuselelwe, kube sengathi kuqalwa phansi, kufundwe emaphutheni enzekile ngaphambilini. Ukwenza lokhu kuzodinga umfutho ongapheli, ukuzinikela, uthando kanye nemali. Abalobi bemibhalo yobuciko ezilimini zaboMdabu, abahluzi bemibhalo, abacwaningi kanye nazo zonke izinhlaka ezizimisele ngokuthuthukiswa nokubekwa eqophelweni kwezilimi zabo nemibhalo yazo akufanele bakhale ngokungathuthuki kwezilimi zabo. Ukukhala ngeke kusize, kuswelekile ukuthi kube khona okwenziwayo ngokushesha. Ngaphezu kwakho konke kufanele bazinikele ukuthuthukisa izilimi zabo. Akukuhle nje ukuthi umuntu agcine ngokushicilela bese eyahlala dekle alindele ukuthi umshicileli alethe imali etholakale ngokudayiswa kwencwadi yakhe. Likhulu ngempela iqhaza abanglibamba abalobi ekudayisweni kwezincwadi zabo.16 Akudingeki nokuthi umuntu angaze abe wumbhali owaziwayo nodumile; umbhali angazidumisa yena ngokuthi imiphakathi imazi ngokumbona nangemisebenzi esezingeni eliphezulu. Isifiso sikaMaake sihle kakhulu uma ethi ibhola lezinyawo nombhoxo akufanele usithe izingqondo zabantu ngendlela yokuthi imibhalo emihle ingabe isabonakala emehlweni abantu:

    Umbhali kufanele aluthole udumo olulinganayo nabesilisa nabesifazane abangabadlali bemidlalo eyahlukene. Izitikha, amaphosta, nayo yonke inhlobo yezikhangiso ezibonakalayo ingasetshenziswa ukuphumelelisa leli phupho. Akufanele futhi kube nendawo ethathwa ngokuthi ayifanele ukuthi kukhonjiswe kuyo imibhalo yethu yobuciko.17

    Umsakazo uzanyiwe futhi waphumelela njengendawo yokuthuthukisa nokukhangisa ngemibhalo ezilimini zaboMdabu kuleli. Leli ngelinye lamasu elibeneqhaza elikhulu kodwa abahlaziyi abaningi abanohlonze banamuhla okubonakalayo ukuthi balishaya indiva. Lapha singabala uPhaswane Mpe, uDumisani Ntshangase, uSibusiso Nyembezi noNhlanhla Maake. Njengoba ngike ngabhala ngaphambilini, ziningi namuhla izincwadi zesiZulu ezisezingeni eliphezulu eziqale ziyimidlalo yomsakazo, kanti futhi zikhona nezincwadi eziguqulwe zaba yimidlalo yomoya. Ababhali abadumile nabanohlonze abafanana noVM Bhengu, MT Mkhize, DBZ Ntuli, EM Damane, Sibusiso Nyembezi, nabanye, kuphakathi kokuthi baqale bebhalela umsakazo nokuthi imisebenzi yabo yobuciko igcine isiyimidlalo yomoya, yaduma kakhulu emsakazweni.18 Ukwenza isibonelo nje, incwadi kaNyembezi ethi Inkinsela YaseMgungundlovu (1960) yaduma kakhulu emsakazweni. Nakuba abahlaziyi bezincwadi abafanan noVVO Mkhize19 bephawula ukuthi amahlaya awasebenzisayo ezincwadini zakhe uNyembezi, nomkhuba wakhe wokunika abanye bafunde lokhu asuke esekubhalile, yikhona okwenza abe wumbhali onohlonze, angihambisani nalokho ngoba kubukela phansi imizamo nokwenza okuthile okungahlangene nencwadi uqobo nokuyenze yaba enedumela kakhulu esiZulwini. Le ncwadi yasakazwa emoyeni emva nje kweminyaka emibili ishicilelwe. Ukusukela ngalowo nyaka isisakazwe kaningi, yaze yavezwa ngisho kumabonakude. Singaphawula futhi ukuthi ziyatholaka iziqeshana zayo ezincwadini ezifana neSizulu Soqobo Ibanga 5. Omunye umbhali owakhuliswa walolongwa futhi waduma ngenxa yomsakazo uVM Bhengu. Incwadi yakhe yokuqala ngqa ukushicilelwa ingathathelwanga emdlalweni womoya yadayisa kakhulu yize noma ibingafundwa ezikoleni.

    Ukuhluzwa kwemibhalo kuwo wonke amaphephandaba aseNingizimu Afrika kungalikhuphula izinga lokuhlonipheka kwezilimi zokudabuka kuleli zwe. Iningi labafundi bala maphepha liyakwazi ukufunda olulodwa noma ezimbili kulezi zilimi. Lokhu kungakwazi nokukhumbuza labo abasacabanga ukuthi isiNgisi yisona sodwa esibalulekile ukuthi nezabo izilimi zibalulekile futhi ziyaphila. Kulabo abangakwazi ukuzifundela imibhalo ebhalwe ngalezi zilimi, ukuhluzwa kwemibhalo ebhalwe ngazo emaphepheni esiNgisi kungenza ukuthi zibe ziningi izincwadi ezihunyushwa zisuka kulezi zilimi ziya esiNgisini nakwezinye izilimi zabezizwe. Abashicileli kuswelekile ukuthi bahlele ukuthi lezi zincwadi zethulwe ngendlela eqondile. Ukwethulwa kwezincwadi nokufundwa kwazo phambi kwabantu, yinto engekho ezilimini zethu. Ukwenza kube lula ukuthola izincwadi ngokuthi zidayise kuzo zonke izitolo ezidayisa izincwadi kuswelekile. Ababhali kanye nezinhlaka ezahlukene ezinothando lokuthuthukisa izilimi zokudabuka kuleli kufanele zihlwayele kubantu imbewu yokuthanda izilimi zabo. UHulumeni kufanele akhombise ukuzinikela ngokusiphula ukhula lwenkohlakalo egcwele ekunikezelweni kwezimali zokuxhasa abalobi eziphuma kwiNational Arts Council. Ngaphezu kwalokho kumele afake imali eyanele ukwenza lezi zilimi zibe 'semthethweni ngempela' futhi zisebenze. Lokhu kungaba yingxenye yokwenza ukuvuselelwa kwe-Afrika kube yiphupho elingagcini kuyiphupho kodwa lifezeke.

    Elokuphetha
    Isikhathi nenkundla ibincane kakhulu ukuthi singaxoxa kabanzi ngezinto eziningi lapha. Kuningi okungathintiwe. Asishongo lutho ngezinhlangano ezingekho ngaphansi kukahlulumeni ezifana neCentre for the Book eseKapa (ebambe iqhaza elikhulu ekuthuthukiseni imibhalo yezilimi zokudabuka kuleli) neTimbila, kanye nemagazini efana neDrum. Ukwenza nje isibonelo, iDrum, ishicilela izindaba ezimfishane, ikhakhulu ezibhalwe abalobi abasafufusa. Iqhaza layo kufanele kubhalwe ngalo imiqingo impela. Ngeke sikhohlwe amaphephandaba afana nelesiZulu Ilanga, Leselinyana (isiSuthu), neMvo Zabantsundu (isiXhosa) kanye neSolezwe (isiZulu). Kodwa-ke siyadinga ukuthi kusungulwe amanye amaphephandaba ezilimini zaboMdabu.

    Yowona-ke amasu nezindlela okungasetshenziswa kanye kanye ukuze imibhalo yethu ithuthuke, ikhangiseke, yaziwe futhi ihlonishwe. Nezinga lokubhalwa kumele likhushulwe. Sethemba ukuthi abashicileli bazophinde bavuselele uchungechunge lwemibhalo yobuciko, kuthi lezo zinkampani ezingenalo zenze imizamo yokuqala okusha. Abanye abashicileli kumele bashintshe indlela ababheka ngayo imibhalo yobuciko bese bekhetha abahlaziyi noma abahlungi abasha esikhundleni sokuthi bazitshele ukuthi laba abadala bazoshintsha indlela ababona ngayo izinto. Phela siyasala kwezakamuva izinguquko ezenzeka emhlabeni wokubhalwa kwezincwadi. Masethembe nokuthi abashicilelei ngeke basitshele ukuthi bakhathele kakhulu ngoba belale ezinzulwini zobusuku bejahele ukuhambisa izincwadi ezifunwa uMnyango wezeMfundo ngakusasa ekubeni beshicilela izincwadi ezizofundwa ngabantu abavuthiwe nabakhulile.

     

    Ezinye zezincwadi ezifundiwe
       
    Bower, C. 1998. Educational Publishing in South Africa. Unpublished paper presented to a class of Publishing Studies students, Department of African Literature, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
       Evans, N and M Seeber (eds). 2000. The Politics of Publishing in South Africa. London: Hogler Ehling Publishing.
       Granville-Barker, H. 1956. On Dramatic Method. New York: Hill & Wang.
       Maake, N. 2000. Publishing and Perishing: Books, People and Reading in African Languages in South Africa. In N Evans and M Seeber (eds) (2000).
      Mpe, P. 1999. The Role of the Heinemann African Writers Series in the Development and Promotion of African Literature. African Studies 58:1 (pp 105-122).
       Sibiya, EDM. 2001a. Media and the Development of African-Language Literature: Ukhozi FM and Ilanga. Unpublished MA thesis, submitted to the University of the Witwatersrand in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Arts.
       Sibiya, EDM. 2001b. Performance to Print and Print to Performance: Plays, Adaptation and Book Reading on South African Radio. Journal of African Cultural Studies, Vol 14, No 2, December 2001.
      Wa Thiong'o, Ngugi. 1986. The Language of African Literature. In Decolonising the Mind. London: James Currey.
       Woll, T. 1998. Publishing for Profit. London: Kogan Page.



    This piece was part of Young Voices: The 2004 South African Online Writers' Conference



    * Le eseyi isuselwe encwadini yami engayibhalela iziqu zeMA eNyuvesi yaseWitwatersrand nesihloko sithi Media and the Development and Promotion of African-Language Literature: Ukhozi FM and Ilanga (2001).
    Bang, D.N. "In Praise of Zulu Literature" Ilanga laseNatal, NgoMgqibelo, April 21, 1951
    2  Ukuze ufunde kabanzi ngomlando wokuqalwa kokushicilelwa kwemibhalo yobuciko eziLimini zaboMdabu eNingizimu Afrika, ukubandakanya incwadi yokuqala ulimi ngalunye, ungafunda imisebenzi yabahlaziyi abanjengoGroenewald (1983), Kunene noKirsch (1967), noMaake (2000).
    3  Maake, 1992; Maake, 2000: 149
    4  Ukufunda kabanzi ngemiklomelo ungabheka imisebenzi yalaba bahluzi: (Mpe, okusazoshicilelwa), Maake (2000), Sibiya (2001a).
    5  Ngokomlando, isiBhunu sathola ukuhlonipheka ngokuthi sibe wulimi olusemthethweni ngonyaka we-1924. Izinkampani zabashicileli ezaziphethwe amaBhunu zaziqinisekisa ukuthi zithuthukisa konke okuthinta isiBhunu. Abakhuluma izilimi zokudabuka kuleli zwe bangafunda isifundo kulokhu okwenziwa amaBhunu, okukhombisa ukuthi akumele kusetshenziswe indlela eyodwa uma kuzothuthukiswa ulimi.
    6  Mpe, 2000: 1
    7  Maake, 2000: 150
    8  Lo mbhalo waphuma ephephandabeni Ilanga LaseNatal, langoMgqibelo, mhlaka-9 Juni 1951.
    9  Legodi, T (1999), amakhasi 1-20.
    10  Maduna (2000). Engxoxweni yami (Mbasa, 2001) noNkk Lettie Maseko osebenzela abashicileli bakwaBard ePitoli wayincoma kakhulu le noveli kaBhengu.
    11  I-imeyili eyabhalwa ngo February 2001.
    12  NoPhaswane Mpe wake walwa impi efanayo noMusi owayemgxekela ukuthi encwadini yakhe usebenzise ulimi oluhlambalazayo uma esebenzisa igama elithi 'masepa' nelisho amasimba.
    13  Lo mklomelo awudumile kangako ngoba uphethwe yiNyuvesi yaseWits, awuvulelwe kunoma ngubani. Inhloso yawo wukugqugquzela ababhali abasafufusa. Uqale ngo-1985 kanti kule minyaka emibili edlule ngiseWits, angikhumbuli kukhona omunye owutholayo. Anginasiqiniseko noma sekuwukuphela kwawo yini.
    14  Lapha ngikhumbula amaqhawe akithi afana noVilakazi noNyembezi.
    15  Ungafunda incwadi yakhe ethi Publishing for Profit (1998), amakhasi 163-164.
    16  Ngikwenzile mina lokhu kwasebenza enovelini yami ethi Kungasa Ngifile.
    17  Maake, 2000: 155.
    18  Sibiya, EDM (2001b). "Performance to Print and Print to Performance: Plays, Adaptations and Book Reading on South African radio" iphepha elitholakala encwadini ethi Journal of African Cultural Studies, Vol 14, No 2, Dec 2001.
    19  OkaKhabazela lona wayehluza izincwadi emsakazweni wesiZulu (sekuwUkhozi FM manje) njalo ngolwesiBili lokugcina enyangeni.

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